To determine whether features of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and/or symptoms of dry eye disease are associated with depression in women participants enrolled in the Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA).
Women enrolled in the SICCA registry from 9 international research sites.
Participants met at least 1 of 5 inclusion criteria for registry enrollment including:
- complaints of dry eyes or dry mouth
- a previous diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS)
- abnormal serology (positive anti–Sjögren syndrome antigen A and/or B [anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB]), or elevated antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor
- bilateral parotid gland enlargement, or multiple dental caries.
Dry eye complaints produced a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.40) higher odds of having depression compared to being symptom-free (P < .001).
Additionally, complaints of specific ocular sensations were associated with a higher odds of depression including burning sensation (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.87-2.72, P < .001) compared to those without complaints.
In both women with and without SS, the presence of symptoms of dry eyes and/or dry mouth rather than SS itself resulted in higher odds of depression.